Converting solar energy to useful electricity - Grid Tie Inverters and solar geysers
Also see an article on battery storage systems
Also see an article on Energy equivalents
A really impressive technology is developing at present relating to the useful conversions of solar energy.
Solar panels are becoming quite cheap and have a long operating life (20 years if well made). However they are difficult to interface to harness the available power. A typical panel might have an open circuit voltage of 22 volts, a short circuit current of 3 amps and have an optimum power transfer point elsewhere say at 15 volts. In addition a cloud passing across the direct sun path might cause the output power to drop to just 10% of the energy compared to the energy without the cloud. All this means that one is getting continually fluctuating energy from the panels and it is very difficult to design for a steady load- especially something using a motor.
In the past one might have stored the energy in some form of battery, but this gives very little of the potential energy available from the solar panel to a useful load. Batteries are expensive, difficult to charge and discharge quickly, have small capacities and a limited life.
The ideal situation is to immediately convert the solar energy to mains electricity that is compatible with the supplied mains and to use the energy in the normal AC load of the building, reducing the amount of energy drawn from the municipal supply.
You cannot use any inverter to convert the DC voltage from the solar panel to AC mains compatible energy. It has to be generated in exact phase and frequency with the incoming mains otherwise it is going to be vaporised.
The type of inverter needed is called a Grid-Tie inverter.
It is wired directly onto the mains supply and the solar panel provides the energy. The inverter continually monitors the solar panel and as soon as there is sufficient energy it starts to monitor the AC mains supply determining the frequency and the phase angles.
It starts its inverter at the same frequency as the incoming mains supply but at a low output voltage and gets the two voltages in exact phase with each other. It then increases the output voltage to start supplying in phase electricity and using up the available solar power.
On the solar input side it adjusts the load voltage to get maximum power transfer from the solar panel by monitoring the DC voltage and current to operate at the Maximum Power transfer point. It continually adjusts these values so that it can handle variations in the available solar power such as might happen with a cloud passing through the direct sun path.
The inverter has another feature called islanding, which shuts down the entire process in the event of an incoming mains failure.
Grid-Tie inverters have been around for a long time for major solar and wind turbine installations. They have however been quite expensive (US$1500 for a 15KVA system)
The new development is in the form of micro grid-tie inverters which allow simple systems of 300 watts or 500 watts to be implemented in modular form. These are not wired into the main switch board of the establishment, but plug into a normal AC outlet in a room. They are also cascadable allowing many 300 watt or 500 watt units to work in parallel so that larger loads can be addressed. They cost only about US$150 each.
The performance advantage of the micro grid tie inverter compared to the historic large scale grid tie inverter is that it can work with a single solar panel as it is designed to work with 12 volt, 24 volt or 48 volt DC systems. The advantage with lower voltage small systems is that they are safer for the DIY enthusiast, you can start your system with a small working system and expand as your needs and finances grow, and that they are less susceptible to loss of performance caused by shadows. On traditional grid tie systems where a single inverter is used which is fed from many panels, the panels are wired in series to supply DC voltages as high as 400 volts. As soon as a shadow falls on any one panel, the performance of the entire system is compromised as all the panels are in series. With the microgrid tie inverter a shadow on one panel affects only that inverter while all the others in the network operate at full capacity. There are market developments that in future it is likely that the grid tie inverter will be built into each solar panel and that the output of the panel will be at mains voltage with all panels tied in parallel.
Another advantage of the micro grid tie inverter is that it will optimally transfer power from its solar panel to the mains network. As solar panels made by different manufacturers have different performance specifications, the use of micro grid tie inverters allows a network of panels with different specifications to work optimally.
We have six of these systems running at present which generate about 70% of the electricity used during daytime. We have power meters on the incoming mains power supplied from the municipality and on the power supplied from the solar panels and continuously monitor the effectiveness of the system. When clouds pass over the setup one instantly observes the change in output from the solar network and the increase from the municipal network to keep the building load running optimally.
With Prepaid electricity systems and remote electricity meter monitoring, the municipal meter is becoming an electronic device. In computing your power usage, it takes into account the magnitude of the voltage and the magnitude of the current, and the phase angle between the two components so that it can calculate the true power supplied. When you overgenerate, current flows back to the municipality and the meter detects this as the phase angle between the voltage and current reverses. The meters do not give you credit for this returned power, but rather calculate that no power is being supplied by the municipality.
Above: A meter measuring the incoming current from the solar panels to one of the micro grid-tie inverters.
At current electricity rates, we expect payback within 5 years without any form of solar subsidy.
Solar water heating - solar geysers
Heating water via a solar geyser is the most effective use of solar energy that the home owner can implement. The equipment is cheap, it is low tech and payback comes very quickly.
A low pressure solar water heater. These are very efficient in heating water. In this case the heating tubes are double walled tubes with the gap between the two tubes being evacuated. The water being heated is inside the inner tube and rises as it is heated to be replaced with colder water from the header tank. The vacuum insulation between the hot water and the outside is so effective that when you touch the tubes they feel cold. This one has a 100 litre header tank which achieves nearly 70 degrees celsius in one day sunshine. In our situation we feed this to the kitchen sink as a third feed and only switch on the electric geyser for the kitchen if there are a number of days of overcast weather.
A high pressure solar water system allows the use of balanced pressure taps for showers, baths and basins to also be used with solar systems. The pressure in the balanced water system operates at 400 kpA, while the solar heater is a low pressure system. Inside the solar storage tank is a coiled pipe through which the high pressure water flows. This pipe transfers heat by conduction from the heated solar water tank to the water flowing in the coiled pipe. The water in the coiled pipe is fed to the input water connection of the electric geyser meaning that instead of filling the geyser with cold municipal water, it is filled with preheated water meaning less electricity is needed to heat the water to operating temperature. When using the showers etc, the temperature of the solar geyser tank drops as heat is transferred out of the tank.
1 calorie of energy causes 1 cc of water to rise 1 degree centigrade 1 calorie of energy is equivalent to 4.17 joules of energy 1 joule = 1 watt-second 1 kw-hour of energy raises 100 liters of water 8.633 degrees centigrade 1 kw-hour of energy raises 200 liters of water 4.31 degrees centigradeFrom the same calculation, every four degree drop in temperature or a 200 litre solar geyser means that 1 kilowatt-hours energy has been transferred to the electric geyser saving the same in electricity.
In our situation, the geyser in Sept (Spring) gets to 70 degrees in the afternoon and reduces to 30 degrees after everyone has showered and bathed,
meaning it is reducing the electricity power consumption of the house by 10kwh per day.
In the high pressure solar geyser, the water in the storage tank is only use to store heat and is not consumed. This means it is suitable for situations where the geyser might encounter
temperatures below zero over night as an antifreeze can be added to the geyser water.
The following graph shows the electrical power used by two geysers that use the preheated water from the high pressure solar geyser system. The electric geysers are a 200 litre and a 100 litre system. In South Africa in Johannesburg there is a ripple relay control system that allows the municipality to switch off the geysers remotely during peak loads. This typically happens between 18h30 to 21h00 and from 07h00 to 09h00. The graph shows that for 3 adults 7.26kwh of electrical energy was used to heat the geysers in one day. This situation occured before the load scheduling program was implemented detailed below.
A solar swimming pool filter that runs on a 12 volt pump drawing power from the solar array which is also used by the micro grid-tie inverters. The water is treated with an ozone generator and the main swimming pool pump is only used occasionally to let the pool cleaner retrieve the fallen leaves.
One of the most effective energy saving devices is a geyser blanket.
We measure electrical energy daily used to keep our geysers at operating temperature.
Common electronic municipal meters will not give you credit for over generating with the solar/grid-tie system and feeding power back to the neighbourhood. What is needed is to consume the solar energy when it is generated by running non-time critical appliances during the day when power is being generated. We have time switches on our geysers to try to reheat the geysers when the solar power is at a maximum so as to minimise power being returned to the municipality.
Electricity bought from the municipality
Analysing the upper graph
Impact of overcast weather
The above graph shows the total energy generated daily from the solar network. The fluctuations are caused by weather conditions between overcast and sunny days.
The above graph shows the total energy bought on a daily basis from the municipality. On overcast days the energy increases due to the solar geysers not getting as hot as normal and not preheating the geyser inlet water to normal temperatures, meaning extra energy is needed to heat the water to temperature.
We have six gridtie inverters in parrallel. Referring to the above graph.
At 08h45 one of the units is shut down as the other five are generating sufficient for our base load excluding geysers and swimming pool.
Delivering 50% of our energy needs from the sun
Running our household with its swimming pool, geysers, kitchen appliances, computer systems, borehole, garden sprinklers, entertainment systems, security systems, workshops, compressors, home heating/cooling and all energy requirements except for motor vehicles - typically uses 50 kwh per day of which 50% is supplied from the Municipality and 50% is from the sun.
In the above graphSouth Africa is in the Southern Hemisphere and summer is in December and winter in June. This is a 20 room house on a 2000 sq meter stand with a large swimming pool.
Achieving higher percentages than 50% for the solar is a challenge as we consume energy over 24 hours but only have solar capture over 8 hours to 12 hours. We do not want to go the route of batteries as that defeats the benefits of a grid tie system and increases costs dramatically.
less character endorsement rib anti agreement accept clearing sched co edia harmonised dumping ow rate exempt extra african media permit index